Archive for the ‘Cameras – real time images’ Category

How to Select a Night Vision Camera

Friday, April 9th, 2010

What you need to know about IR-illumination capabilities of CCTV cameras, and why the “green” movement makes them a new opportunity for security designers and integrators.

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Designers might want to check out the latest technological developments in cameras with built-in IR illumination as a potential add-on sale for both residential and commercial applications.

The night vision camera trend is being spurred partly by “green” initiatives because people don’t want to waste money on electricity to maintain outdoor flood lights.

Indeed, with enlightened ‘green clients’ you can sell the ROI for the installation of a night vision camera for exterior (or interior) security use vs. the cost of lighting.

How IR Illumination Works

Without any light source in some cases, cameras can clearly capture crisp images for use at night, potentially opening up a whole new market. CCTV cameras have always been primarily a commercial offering, but lower cost bullet and discrete dome units are well suited for resi applications.

IR illuminators offer the camera the ability, in essence, to capture the wavelength of light that is not visible to humans.

IR illuminators can be built into the camera or be a separate attachment. Generally there are three wavelengths of IR illuminators for night vision cameras:

  • 730 nm (nanometers) — Produces red glow about half the strength of stop light and offers the best visibility.
  • 830 nm — Most common strength that is used for semi-covert applications and produces a slight red glow.
  • 940 nm — Designed for covert applications. It can produce an image from full blackness, but can only view a short distance.

There are two types of IR illuminators:

  • Thermal IR — These detect heat. They are ideal for detection, but not for identification.
  • Active IR — These detect motion and offer crisper images.

Cameras are available that offer a combination of both technologies.

It’s a myth that if there is no light, there will be no picture. This is a  not generally correct, You can get a picture, but it’s not a good idea due to quality of the recorded images using the general product selection Low-lux cameras that are available for use in low-light situations.

However, these cameras, which do not have IR illuminators, are likely to produce a “noisy and grainy” picture. Also, if the images are being recorded on a DVR, they will take up a lot of space and bandwidth.

Likewise, if the images are being sent over an IP network, they require 40 percent more bandwidth for transmission.

Questions When specifing Low-Light Cameras

There are four key questions to ask with specifing a low-light camera:

  1. How far? Distance needed to capture images will determine focal length, beam angle and IR illuminator width.
  2. How wide? The wider the lens, the shorter the distance.
  3. Is there light at the scene? Some lighting looks good aesthetically, but is not good for image capture.
  4. What is the environment at the scene? Is the camera going to exposed to vibration, heat , saltwater, etc.

Night vision cameras themselves are getting greener. New units draw as little as 25 watts to 45 watts of power to see as far as 700 feet. Those same cameras used to require 500 watts to 1,000 watts.

Finally, designers should know that IR illuminators degrade at about 20 percent per year. Bosch has introduced a new technology called Black Diamond (pdf) to minimize degradation by automatically turning off the power to the illuminator during daylight hours.

Smart homes today

Sunday, June 14th, 2009

Broadband internet and digital TV are seen as the first steps towards smart, networked homes, as they have the potential to be gateways into homes for a wide range of smart applications. Their take up has been rapid; by March 2006, 43 per cent of UK homes had broadband internet connections compared to two years earlier when only 15 per cent did.6 The take up of digital television is driven by government policy to switch all TV to digital by 2012 and 77.2 per cent of British homes had digital TV in some form as reported at the end of 2006.

The technology industry sees smart homes as the next big thing and many companies have smart or digital home programmes. But analysts argue that consumers’ key concerns are still simple problems, like getting all the computers in a house to link to the same printer.

Other than the most technology literate or the very wealthy, consumers do not yet seem to be demanding the advantages of networked homes. Smart homes are therefore more likely to evolve as people purchase different features that link up to each other over time, rather than through an instant technological upgrade.

Even so, many companies and groups are already looking ahead to fully smart homes. The Automated Home initiative (TAHI) aims to “promote, provide the environment for and launch large scale deployments of ‘smart houses’ and the services…for them so that people can see and experience the benefits the connected home can bring and demand them for themselves.” Their working groups look at different aspects of smart homes and want to avoid features developing in isolation, as the ability of smart features to communicate and work together through a home network will be essential to their desirability. TAHI has been feeding in to the European level development of a smart homes specification, as well as developing a mark of interoperability.

A number of BEAMA members already produce smart home technology and the association has a smart homes working group. It sets out what a smart home is, what it can offer and the technologies available on a comprehensive website that promotes their members and provides developers and homeowners with information. Such initiatives will be increasingly important to the development of smart homes, as features start to become commonplace.

Smart homes around the world
The smart homes market in most developed countries is similar to that of the UK, with some key exceptions. South Korea is a clear leader in this area and looking at their achievements illustrates the real potential of smart homes.

Smart homes in South Korea

Following a financial crisis in the 1990s South Korea invested heavily in developing innovative technology. They have introduced the world to the internet fridge, oven and washing machine and are a laboratory for developing the home of the future.

This will help to solve their domestic challenge of dealing with a greying population, as well as providing them with massive export opportunities.

In 2007 the Ministry of Information and Communication will have invested approximately £247 million in supporting the development of original information technology (IT). Part of this will support home networking, which has already received loans to develop 44,000 networked homes. The ultimate aim is to network 10 million homes, with plans to introduce a home network building certification system.

South Korea’s investment in networking is such that they are increasingly looking beyond the smart home to the smart city. The networked home strategy is now part of a larger project to network entire cities, called U-city, which is being promoted by around £11.5 million worth of subsidies to local government bodies and the construction and housing sectors. Dongtan New Town, Korea’s first U-city, is being tested and rolled out from March 2007 and all 1,010 residential units are now networked.

Home networks in South Korea are provided by LG Electronics’ HomNet product or Samsung’s HomeVita. Lotte Castle apartment complex in Seoul is an example of fully networked homes. They have wireless broadband and a HomNet environment that is controlled via TV, a remote control or a keyboard. Cameras relay real time images from other areas of the home and the outdoor playground, DVDs can be copied onto the home’s hard drive, gas and electricity use is tracked, a health monitor checks blood pressure, body temperature and heart rate and there are on-screen controls for the washing machine, the microwave, the air conditioner and the oven.

The entire home can be controlled remotely by mobile phone and residents will be notified of any problems, such as the gas being left on, and can get real time images of their home over the phone.

Other networked homes have voice activated controls, refrigerators that can update residents on their contents and mirrors that display their daily appointments, as well as toilets that send health updates to their doctor.

The focus of smart homes in South Korea is to make life easier, rather than environmental benefits. But as the environmental performance of homes becomes increasingly important in Europe, a key export market, these aspects are likely to be developed and highlighted. The UK’s pursuit of smart homes will be nowhere near as single minded but it does demonstrate what is possible and provide scope for applying South Korean innovations to our environmental ambitions.

Smart homes in the UK
Smart homes in the UK can be found at extreme ends of the housing spectrum.

Wealthy homeowners looking for the latest technology to manage their homes have been installing smart networks and smart applications are also being put into social and sheltered housing because of their healthcare and energy efficiency benefits.

Retrofitting existing homes to make them smarter and to lower their environmental impact, is also now possible.

The mass housing market is between the extremes of high-end mansions and social housing. The average homebuyer is not demanding smart features and developers have no interest in a home’s performance once it is sold, so they have no driver to install energy saving smart features. The market for smart homes, building contractors generally considered that they would remain a rarity except in high-end properties and sceptical about the potential of smart retrofitting, believing it will remain a niche area.

In contrast to this pessimism, smart home contractors and manufacturers are very positive, regarding “the forward march of the intelligent home as almost inevitable.