Archive for the ‘IP (Internet Protocol)’ Category

HomePNA – the Global Standard Over Coax and Phone Lines

Thursday, March 25th, 2010

HomePNA is the leading standard and technology used for transferring Internet Protocol (IP) content across existing coax cables and phone wires. The main goal of HomePNA is to deliver rich media content such as HDTV streams, VoIP and broadband data without having to install new CAT-5 wiring.HomePNA is the marketing name for the ITU-T G.9954 standard – the only open global standard on the market today for “no-new-wires” networking. HomePNA is designed to run over coax and phone lines. While phone line was the original purpose of HomePNA, over a million homes now have HomePNA running over their coax wiring. In fact, HomePNA connects enough coax wiring to circumnavigate the globe.

HomePNA Delivers More for Less

HomePNA is the leading Home Entertainment Networking technology for a reason – it delivers more content for less money and hassles. HomePNA is optimized for existing coax and phone lines – making it easy for service providers to quickly and economically deploy IPTV Solutions and other services. A typical service provider can deploy IPTV using HomePNA at roughly half the install cost and time as that of deploying IPTV with Cat-5.

HomePNA is capable of delivering a total payload of over 200 Mbit/s. This is more than enough for the delivery of current rich multimedia content distribution and it provides ample headroom for the high bandwidth based applications of the future.

HomePNA is optimized for the real world. It coexists well with broadband and narrowband services (xDSL, TV, telephone) on the same wire and delivers prioritized and parameterized QoS for better quality of experience results.

HomePNA Networks are Easy to Install

The concept behind HomePNA is pretty straightforward. Simply connect the first HomePNA enabled device to any available phone jack or coax/TV outlet and the other HomePNA device to another phone jack or coax/TV outlet and you are good to go. Using HomePNA, every phone jack and every coax/TV outlet becomes a connectivity point which enables the extention of the network to every room in the house.

HomePNA Runs the Applications You Want to Deliver

HomePNA is perfect for a broad range of home entertainment, MDU and broadband access solutions.

  • Home Entertainment Networks
  • IPTV Solutions
  • Triple Play Services
  • Whole Home DVR
  • Over the Top Applications
  • MDU and Hospitality
  • IPTV Solutions for MDU
  • Broadband Access

HomePNA Fits Your Environment

The secret to any great technology is it works well within its environment. This is true with HomePNA. CopperGate’s HomePNA chipsets quickly and easily fit within your environment:

  • Works on either coax or phone. With HomePNA, installers can decide on site which media is best for that specific installation. Only HomePNA provides this level of flexibility.
  • Supports any Ethernet based service in the home. Whether it is IPTV, VoIP, Internet surfing, Whole Home DVR, it doesn’t matter. Anything that is IP based can be supported by HomePNA. That is why HomePNA has such a broad ecosystem of devices and partners.
  • Coexists well with Cable TV, ADSL and VDSL. HomePNA has been optimized to work in bands that coexist with either ADSL or VDSL on the same wire. A simple DSL filter is all that is needed. In addition, HomePNA can work over the same coax infrastructure with analog or digital cable TV (no low frequency band return channel) and HomePNA is perfect for delivering IPTV and cable TV over the same coax line for applications.
  • Tunable to the environment. HomePNA has the flexibility to operate over different frequency bands such as 12-28 Mhz, 12-44 Mhz, 36-52 Mhz or 36-68 Mhz. This provides flexibility in finding the optimal frequency for your environment and makes it easier to fit your regulatory requirements.

HomePNA is Popular

Many service providers are deploying HomePNA around the world. Four out of the top five North American Telcos deploying IPTV have selected HomePNA as their Home Entertainment Networks solution. You should, too. HomePNA is installed by dozens of service providers worldwide and more are joining every day. Already over 1,000,000 homes are running HomePNA today.

HomePNA Performs Great

HomePNA delivers the performance that service providers want. HomePNA is:

  • Stable. Once a system has been installed and the network has been qualified, there are virtually no truck rolls with HomePNA and the performance level is maintained as long as the equipment is connected and operational.
  • Robust. The HomePNA technology can mitigate both narrow band interferers such as Ham radio transmissions as well as broadband noise sources typical to unshielded phone lines or coaxial MDU environments.
  • Great Reach. HomePNA can reach over 750 feet over phone lines before any degration in bandwidth. HomePNA can maintain connectivity all the way past 1,500 feet – over 500 yards.
  • Excellent Attenuation Response. CopperGate’s HomePNA chips deliver maximum throughput without any degradation for attenuations up to 40 dB, and continue to work up to roughly 70 dB.
  • Parameterized and Prioritized QoS. HomePNA supports both parameterized and prioritized quality of service (QoS) and guarantees the delivery of high priority packets in the presence of best effort data streams.
  • Multiple End-Points. HomePNA can add end points without performance degradations. The number of end points does not affect the total system bandwidth of the network. For example, HomePNA can support up to 62 end points in MDU and Hospitality applications.
  • Rate Negotiation. HomePNA provides the best performance for each line condition using a sophisticated peer-to-peer rate negotiation process.
  • Remote Management. HomePNA enables TR-069 based remote and local monitoring of the network to check for quality, network speed, network load, the noise floor, and other key parameters that describe the overall system behavior.

IP Addresses – Explained

Thursday, November 12th, 2009

IP Addresses.

IP (Internet Protocol) addresses are numbers that identify Internet hosts. They provide universal addressing across all the networks of the Internet.

IP addresses are placed in the IP packet header and are used to route packets to their destinations. An IP address is a 32-bit value split into four 8-bit pieces (octets) that are separated by dots. An example of an IP address is Each of the 4 numbers within the IP address can be between 1 and 255.

IP addresses are prefix based. The initial prefixes of the IP address can be used for generalised routing decisions. For example, the first 16 bits of an address might identify a corporation, the next 4 bits may identify a branch of that corporation, the following 6 bits may identify a particular LAN in that corporate branch, and the entire 32-bit address might identify a specific host within that LAN.

To simplify packet routing, Internet addresses are divided into five classes: Class A, Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E. Very large corporations and entities receive Class A addresses, mid-sized companies and universities usually have Class B addresses, and most smaller companies and ISPs have Class C addresses. Class D is a multicast address and Class E is reserved.

Class A addresses are given to large organisations such as major universities and very large corporations. Class A addresses begin with a number between 1 and 126 (127 is reserved) in the first octet, leaving the 3 other octets open to split into local addresses. Although there are only 126 Class A codes, there are more than 16 million individual IP addresses within each Class A. Class B addresses are claimed by mid-sized companies, universities, and other entities that need thousands of IP addresses. Class B IP addresses begin with numbers between 128 and 191 in the first octet and have numbers from 1 through 255 in the second octet, leaving the last 2 octets open to denote local addresses. There are 16,384 Class B addresses with 65,536 individual IP addresses each.

Class C addresses —the most common—are used by most companies and ISPs. A Class C address has a number from 192 through 223 in the first octet and a number from 1 through 255 in the second and third octets, leaving only the fourth octet free for local addresses. There are more than two million Class C addresses and each contains 255 IP addresses.

Subnetting enables a network administrator to further divide the host part of the address into two or more subnets to make them easier to manage. A filter called a subnet mask is used to determine the subnet to which an IP address belongs.

Because IP addresses are difficult to remember, many also have text equivalents such as These text-based addresses are called domain names. A database program called Domain Name Service (DNS) keeps track of the names and translates them into their numeric equivalents.

The Internet is expected to outgrow the number of available IP addresses eventually. A new system of IP addresses called IPv6 has been designed to extend the capacity of the Internet. To date, the uptake of IPv6 has been limited. Most people are still using IPv4 and NAT (Network Address Translation) which allows multiple devices to connect to the Internet using only one ‘real’ IP address.

First Octet Second Octet Third Octet Fourth Octet