Glossary of ZigBee terminology

PAN
Personal Area Network; a collection of cooperating devices which are associated and share the same address space.

PAN ID
The 16-bit value which is used to uniquely define a PAN. Devices make the decision on what radio networks to join based on their PAN ID.

PAN Coordinator

The ZigBee device which is responsible for starting the formation of a ZigBee network. The ZigBee PAN coordinator chooses the PAN ID. There is only one ZigBee PAN Coordinator in any ZigBee network; it’s ZigBee address is always 0.

Full Function Device
A device which can route ZigBee packets as part of it’s normal operation; also called a ZigBee “Router”. FFDs form the meshed network topology by establishing communications links to other devices (both FFDs and RFDs). FFDs can act as a sensor or actuator or other type of node.

Reduced Function Device
An RFD is a device which cannot route ZigBee packets. They are always associated with a single FFD and can only participate in the network as an end, or leaf, node.

Mesh
A network with multiple possible routes between nodes over which a packet can be routed. FFDs form the mesh and discover routes between nodes using a variety of routing algorithms (tree routing or AODV for example).

A-Mode (Automatic)
A ZigBee Commissioning mode, whereby devices and networks self-commission with no direct human involvement. See also E-Mode and S-Mode.
Access Control List
This is a table used by a device to determine which devices are authorized to perform a specific function. This table may also store the security material (e.g. keys, frame counts, key counts, security level information) used for securely communicating with other devices.
ACK
The 802.15.4 ACK (Acknowledgment) provides feedback from the receiver to the sender confirming that a packet was received without error.
Active Analysis
Refers to a piece of test hardware that can actively interact with a live network and perform tasks such as starting and joining networks, channel Scans and network discovery, device polling to obtain information such as battery levels and Link Quality, and over-the-air device Commissioning and configuration. An example of an active analysis device is Daintree’s 2400E Sensor Network Adapter.
Active Network Key
This is a key used by a ZigBee device to secure outgoing NWK frames, and that is available for use to process incoming NWK frames.
Address
All 802.15.4 devices have a unique 64-bit (long) IEEE address for identification. To extend battery life, shorter addresses are used to decrease packet sizes and hence the time a device is actively communicating. ZigBee requires that all communications after joining the network be made on a 16-bit (short) network address (assigned to each newly joining device by its parent).
Advanced (Smart) Meter
A meter capable of measuring and recording time-differentiated data, enabling demand response and real-time pricing programs, and providing additional functionality beyond data recording. Examples of additional functionality include leak detection in a water meter and tamper detection in an electric meter. 
AFG
The ZigBee Alliance’s Application Framework Working Group (AFG) is responsible for realizing applications that use the Network and Security components of the ZigBee Stack. Their brief is to provide a framework for application development, and to standardize individual profiles.
Alternate Network Key
This is a key available to process incoming NWK frames in lieu of the Network Key.
AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure)
The two-way fixed network and associated systems for providing advanced metering data and energy management capability. Provides the capabilities to improve data tracking above and beyond AMR with the goal of influencing energy usage. ZigBee’s Application Profile for AMI is called Smart Energy.
AMR (Automated Meter Reading
Remotely reading the usage data tracked by a metering device via an automated process. AMR is accomplished through the use of a mobile or fixed system that replaces manual meter reading and data tracking process.
Analyzer
An analyzer is a diagnostic tool that allows you to see what is going in a ZigBee network, and to identify and troubleshoot problems that occur. It should be based on the latest standards, and provide functionality that includes network visualization, protocol and packet analysis, searching and filtering to help quickly locate packets of interest, and the ability to monitor network operation and measure performance. Some analyzers also support Active Analysis, which provides the ability to actively interact with a live network to perform tasks including device polling and over-the-air commissioning.
Application
ZigBee technology is well suited to a wide range of building automation, industrial, medical and residential control and monitoring applications. Essentially, applications that require interoperability and/or the RF performance characteristics of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard would benefit from a ZigBee solution. Examples include lighting controls, automatic meter reading, heating control, home security, and industrial and building automation.
Application Framework (AF)
The portion of the Application Layer that provides a description of how to build a profile onto the ZigBee stack so that profiles can be generated in a consistent manner. It also specifies a range of standard data types for profiles, descriptors to assist in service discovery, frame formats for transporting data, and a key value pair construct to rapidly develop simple, attribute based profiles.
Application Key
This is a master key or a link key transported by the Trust Center to a device for the purpose of securing end-to-end communication.
Application Layer (APL)
The top layer in the ZigBee protocol stack consisting of the Application Framework (AF), Application Support sublayer (APS) and ZigBee Device Object (ZDO).
stack
Application Object
This is a component of the top portion of the Application Layer defined by the manufacturer that actually implements the application.
Application Profile
A profile that describes a collection of devices employed for a specific application, and implicitly, the messaging scheme between those devices. For instance, there are application profiles defined for home automation systems and commercial, industrial and institutional systems. A profile ID is allocated to each application to uniquely identify it. Application profiles can be either Public (defined by the ZigBee Alliance and supporting interoperability) or Private (manufacturer-specific or proprietary).
Application Programming Interface (API)
A set of routines, protocols and tools for building software applications.
Application Support sublayer (APS)
The portion of the Application Layer responsible for providing a data service to the application and ZigBee device profiles. In addition, it provides a management service to maintain binding links and the storage of the binding table itself.
APS Command Frame
This is a command frame from the APSME on a device addressed to the peer entity on another device.
Association
The service provided by the MAC sublayer that is used to establish membership in a network..
Attribute
A data entity that represents a physical quantity or state of a particular device. Attributes are communicated to other devices through commands.
Authentication
Security measure designed to establish the validity of a transmission message, or originator, or a means of verifying an individual’s authorization to receive specific categories of information.
Automated Meter Reading (AMR)
A ZigBee Alliance Application Profile and working group. AMR allows remote reading of industrial meters to measure consumption of things like electricity, water and gas. It helps to reduce costs and increase efficiency of meter reading, with added benefits including energy balance and monitoring and fraud detection.
Auto Mode
Part of ZigBee Locationing. In Auto mode, a Blind Node starts collecting Reference Node data automatically in a periodic fashion (typically by timer or user event) without having to be manually asked by the host system. By default it sends its calculated location to the network coordinator. See also Polled mode.
AUX
The AUX Header is part of NWK layer security. The AUX Header consists of the Security Field, Frame Counter, Source Address, and Key Sequence Number.

B

Battery Level
A measurement available through popular ZigBee Analyzer tools that shows you whether a device is running on mains power or battery, and the level remaining for the battery-powered devices.
Beacon
A transmission by ZigBee routers to confirm their presence to other network devices. Devices typically sleep between beacons to lower their power usage and extend their battery life. Beacons are important for Mesh topology networks to keep all nodes synchronized without requiring those nodes to consume precious battery energy by listening for long periods of time.
Beacon-enabled Network
A network containing at least one device that transmits Beacon frames at a regular interval.
Binding
Connections between end devices in a ZigBee network. For example, a connection between a light switch and the light that it operates. Each binding supports a specific Application Profile, and each message type is represented by a Cluster (within that profile).
binding
Binding Table
A master lookup table, managed by the network coordinator, that shows details of all device Bindings.
Blind Node
A device that, when requested, will calculate its location. This device will query neighboring Reference nodes for their position, and use this position information, along with the received signal strength, in its location calculation. Blind nodes must contain a Location Engine.
Breakpoint
A marker inserted into a capture file used to mark interesting events. During playback of the file, the playback can be paused whenever it reaches a breakpoint.
Bridge
A network device used to connect two network segments that use the same communications protocol. Compare with Gateway.
Broadcast
The transmission of a message to every device within a network.

C

CCA
Clear Channel Assessment. CCA is performed to detect if the channel is busy or empty. A mode in CCA further performs RF energy detection in the channel. With CCA, contention with other wireless networks, such as Wireless LAN, is avoided.
CCM*
The mode of authentication and encryption used by ZigBee. See the ZigBee Security Services specification for more information.
Certificate
A digital representation of information which at least identifies the certificate authority issuing it; names or identifies its subscriber; contains the subscriber’s public key; identifies its operational period; and is digitally signed by the certification authority issuing it.
Certification
Certification is the process your product goes through where it is tested to ensure it complies with the ZigBee standards. There are three types of certification available: ZigBee Compliant Platform (ZCP), ZigBee Network Capable (ZNC), and ZigBee Certified Product. Only the ZigBee Certified Products are allowed to display the ZigBee logo.
Channel
A specific portion of the radio spectrum along which a communications signal is transmitted. IEEE 802.15.4 supports three bands with 27 channels specified: Channel 0 on the 868MHz Band, Channels 1 to 10 on the 915MHz Band, and Channels 11 to 26 on the 2.4GHz Band.
CIS/MDMS
Utility Customer Information System and Meter Data Management System.
Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)
CCA is performed to detect if the channel is busy or empty. A mode in CCA further performs RF energy detection in the channel. With CCA, contention with other wireless networks, such as Wireless LAN, is avoided.
Cluster
Devices within an Application Profile communicate with each other by means of clusters, which may be inputs to our outputs from the device. For example, in the home automation profile there is a cluster dedicated to the control of lighting subsystems. A cluster ID uniquely identifies clusters within the scope of a particular profile.
Commercial Building Automation (CBA)
A ZigBee Alliance Application Profile and working group. CBA is designed to provide wireless lighting and HVAC control and monitoring for energy management and “green buildings” compliance.
Commissioning
Commissioning, also referred to as deployment, covers everything involved in installing and configuring ZigBee devices and networks, ready for operation. In its broadest sense, commissioning encompasses a wide range or tasks including a survey of the radio and physical environment, the placement of devices, configuration of parameters application binding, optimization of network and device parameters, and testing and verification of correct operation.
Compliance
Adherence to the ZigBee specifications to ensure that applications and devices are interoperable. Products are tested by independent test houses to ensure that they conform to the specifications before they are deemed to be compliant (which entitles them to bear the ZigBee logo).
Configure
The act of changing settings for a device, for example, specifying the device’s addressing, protocols and security for commissioning.
Connect
A ZigBee Commissioning startup control that tells the current device to connect to the first network it finds with settings that you specify. See also Join and Rejoin.
Coordinator
The device that sets up the network and acts as a portal to monitor network performance and configure parameters.
CPP (Critical Peak Pricing)
A type of pricing by utilities whereby certain hours of the day (corresponding to peak consumption or demand times) are subject to much higher than usual consumption pricing. Customers are typically notified one day or one hour in advance depending on the criticality.
Cycle Time
Part of ZigBee Locationing. You can specify a cycle time to determine how often a Blind Node should start location calculations.

D

Daintree Networks
A leading provider of tools for developing, testing, commissioning, and maintaining wireless sensor and control devices and networks based on ZigBee and IEEE 802.15.4 standards and protocols. Daintree’s products include the Sensor Network Analyzer (SNA) and 2400E Sensor Network Adapter.
Data Key
A key shared between two devices for Peer-to-peer data communications
Decode
Convert information into a form in which it is easier to read. For example, you can decode an individual ZigBee packet to show all bytes in hexadecimal and ASCII to better be able to understand its content.
Decryption
The process of “unscrambling” an encrypted or coded message (changing ciphertext into plaintext using a cryptographic algorithm and key).
Deploy
See Commisioning
Destination
The device to which a transmission is delivered. All transmissions have a source (sending device) and destination (receiving device).
Developer Kit
Thee kits are provided by semiconductor companies. They contain hardware and software for developers to investigate or develop ZigBee products and applications.
Devcon
ZigBee Alliance Developers Conference designed to inform developers about the latest ZigBee developments.
Device
Any entity that contains an implementation of the ZigBee protocol stack.
Device Description
This is a description of a specific device within an Application Profile. For example, the light sensor device description is a member of the Home Automation application profile. The device description also has a unique identifier that is exchanged as part of the discovery process.
Device Manager
Part of Daintree’s Sensor Network Analyzer. This tool provides tools for managing devices under test and for commissioning devices and networks.
Direct Load Control
The capability of a utility to control customer loads directly including turn-off and cycling capability.
Disassociation
The service provided by the MAC sublayer used to discontinue the membership of a device in a network.
Discovery
The process of polling a ZigBee device or network to find out information. For example, you can use an Analyzer and hardware that supports Active Analysis to discover the topology of a network that has already formed.
Dongle
A piece of hardware that connects to a PC, typically via USB. In ZigBee, dongles can be used as both passive capture devices, and as Active Analysis and Commissioning devices.

E

E-Mode (Easy)
A ZigBee commissioning mode, whereby devices contain stimulus and feedback mechanisms to facilitate basic commissioning by the end user or installer. See also A-Mode and S-Mode.
Encryption 
Cryptographic transformation of data (called “plaintext) into a form (called “ciphertext”) that conceals the data’s original meaning to prevent it from being known or used. If the transformation is reversible, the corresponding reversal process is called decryption, which is a transformation that restores encrypted data to its original state.
End Device
A network device that can start or receive a message, but cannot forward messages upstream or downstream. It can communicate with the coordinator or a router, but not directly with other end devices. Also referred to as an RFD (Reduced Function Device).
Endpoint
Every ZigBee device can contain up to 241 endpoints. An endpoint is analogous to a TCP port: each endpoint can provide a distinct application service. Endpoint 0 itself is reserved for device management, and is called the ZigBee Device Object (ZDO). Endpoint 0 provides the means to control and manage devices and endpoints. The remaining 240 endpoints can be allocated for any required services.
Energy Services Portal
Any device that provides the capability to transition messages from Wide Area Networks to ZigBee-based networks.
Energy Management System (EMS)
Business-level applications that manage or control when and how Energy Management programs take place within premises.
EP
Abbreviation for Endpoint.
EPID
Extended PAN ID. The globally unique 64-bit PAN identifier of the network. This identifier is used to avoid PAN ID conflicts between distinct networks.
Ethernet
A common method of networking computers in a local area network (LAN).
Event
An occurrence that can be triggered manually or can simply occur during device or network operation. ZigBee Analyzers provide the ability to identify and investigate events of interest.
Extended PAN ID
This is the globally unique 64-bit PAN identifier of the network. This identifier should be unique among the PAN overlapping in a given area. This identifier is used to avoid PAN ID conflicts between distinct networks.

F

FCS
The Frame Check Sequence bit within a frame contains transmission error checking information. It is typically the last bit in the frame. A value of 0 indicates errors (with a value of 1 indicating no errors).
FFD (Full Function Device)
See Router 
Filter
The process of selecting to view a subset of items currently on display. For example, you can filter a list of packets displayed by an Analyzer to show only those that match a certain criteria.
Firmware
Firmware is software (or instructions) stored in the memory of a hardware device.
Frame
A data structure used in network transmissions. Also referred to as a packet. Supported 802.15.4 frame formats include the Data Frame with up to 104 byte data payload capacity, Acknowledgment (ACK) Frame to provide feedback, MAC Command Frame for remote control and configuration, and the Beacon Frame to wake up devices when they are required for communications.
frame
Frequency
The band on which communications are transmitted. IEEE 802.15.4 supports three frequency bands: 868MHz, 915MHz, and 2.4GHz.
Frequency Agility
One of the advantages of 2.4GHz-based ZigBee networks is the choice of 16 different operating channels, compared with a single channel for some competing lower-frequency proprietary systems. ZigBee PRO’s Frequency Agility function makes utilization of these channels easier. When a ZigBee network is initiated, the node forming the network scans for an available channel with the least existing traffic or noise. Over time, if the busyness of the chosen channel increases or a new interference source emerges, the Frequency Agility function may be used by the application to scan for a better channel and seamlessly “move” the entire network to the new channel. This allows the network to adapt to changing environments over months or years.

G

Gateway
A network device that acts as an entrance to another network, for example, between a wired and wireless network. It contains translators and other functionality that enables communication between networks that use different protocols.
Group
Part of ZigBee Commissioning that specifies one-to-many and many-to-many connections between devices in the same network.

H

HAN
Home Area Network
HCL
Home Controls, Lighting
Header
Address information on packets that say where each one should go.
Home Automation (HA)
A ZigBee Alliance Application Profile and working group for the residential automation market. OEMs will be able to produce products based on this profile that meet the needs of customers ranging from DIY homeowners to professional installers. The initial application areas include lighting, HVAC, audio/video control, irrigation, and access control.
Hop
One leg of a journey taken be a packet from router to router to reach its destination.
HVAC
Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning

I

IEEE
The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers is a non-profit professional organization for the advancement of technology. Their 802.15 working group is responsible for the 802.15.4 standard on which ZigBee is based.
Industrial Plant Monitoring (IPM)
A ZigBee Alliance Application Profile and working group for the monitoring of time varying attributes related to operating environment and machinery conditions such as vibration, temperature, flux and chemicals. Analysis of the measurement data can be used to trigger binary or more complex control actions.
Interference
Interference can occur when different wireless networks are communicating using the same RF channels in close proximity. ZigBee addresses this potential problem by supporting up to 27 different Channels for communications, which reduces the probability of interfering with other users.
Internet of Things
A term coined by the ITU to describe the next step in “always on” communications, in which new technologies like ZigBee promise a world of networked and interconnected devices that provide relevant content and information whatever the location of the user. Everything from tires to toothbrushes will be in communications range, heralding the dawn of a new era, one in which today’s Internet (of data and people) gives way to tomorrow’s Internet of Things.
Interoperability
The ability for ZigBee devices from one manufacturer to work seamlessly with devices from a second manufacturer. One of the major benefits of ZigBee is that devices that comply with the ZigBee Alliance’s Standards and Application Profiles are interoperable, regardless of which manufacturer builds them.
IPv6
Internet Protocol version 6. Working groups are currently looking at creating a minimal IPv6 stack to work on IEEE 802.15.4 radios to provide communications using a simple but sufficient mesh network, security model, packet format, and interface/control mechanisms.

J

Join
This occurs when a device attempts to join (or associate, which is the 802.15.4-MAC-equivalent function) a network. Join is also used as a ZigBee Commissioning startup control that tells the current device to join the first network it finds. See also Connect and Rejoin.

K

Key
There are several different security key types used by ZigBee. They are Standard and High Security Network Keys, Application and Trust Center Link Keys, and Application and Trust Center Master Keys. Key management is performed by the Trust Center device.
Key Establishment
This is a mechanism that involves the execution of a protocol by two devices to derive a mutually shared secret key.
Key-Load Key
This is a key derived from a Link Key used to protect key transport messages carrying a Master Key.
Key Transport
This is a mechanism for communicating a key from one device to another device or other devices.
Key-Transport Key
This is a key derived from a Link Key used to protect Key Transport Messages carrying a key other than a Master Key.
Key Update
This is a mechanism implementing the replacement of a key shared among two or more devices by means of another key available to that same group.

L

Latency
The length of time between a Packet being send, and the response to that packet being returned.
Leave
The act of a device that is leaving a network, as well as a command request to explicitly instruct a device to leave the network.
Link Keys
Link Keys are used to secure unicast messages between two devices at the Application Layer. Application broadcast messages cannot be secured using a Link Key; they are secured using the Network Key. For encryption and decryption purpose the Trust Center and Application Layer Link Key are used in an identical manner. The different Link Key names are simply used to distinguish whether the source of the key was the Trust Center or not. Link Keys cannot be used to secure frames at the Network Layer. See also Network Keys and Master Keys.
Link Quality Indicator (LQI)
This indicator shows the quality of the link between devices within a ZigBee network.
Location Dongle
A hardware device used by Daintree’s Sensor Network Analyzer to communicate with Blind and Reference nodes and calculate the location of the Blind nodes. See Locationing.
Location Engine
Code that is embedded into a device that allows the device’s location to be calculated. See Locationing.
Locationing
The process of finding the position of a device whose where-abouts is unknown or subject to change. A number of devices with known locations (called Reference nodes) send broadcast requests to the node to be located (called a Blind node). The Blind node’s location is then calculated using the signal strength and direction of the responses received by the Reference nodes. Note that locations can only be calculated for Blind Nodes that contain a Location Engine.

M

MAC
The IEEE 802.15.4 Media Access Control layer, which controls access to the radio channel. Its responsibilities may also include transmitting beacon frames, synchronization and providing a reliable transmission mechanism.
stack
Malformed
Something that contains errors or omissions. For example, a malformed Route is one where a given packet correctly arrived at its destination but some Hops were not detected. This means that an Analyzer cannot be 100% sure of the path taken by the packet.
Master Keys
Master Keys are not used to encrypt any frames. They are used as an initial shared secret by two devices when they perform the Key Establishment Procedure, SKKE, to generate Link Keys. As far as the security algorithms are concerned, there is no difference between a Trust Center and Application Master Key. The different key names are just used to distinguish the source of the key. The Trust Center Master Key may be unique for each device on a network. See also Link Keys and Network Keys.
Membership
Part of ZigBee Commissioning, membership encompasses all aspects of how networks and devices determine which devices are included in (or excluded from) a specific network. All commands required to achieve membership can be found in the ZigBee Device Profile and ZigBee Commissioning Cluster.
Mesh Topology
This topology, also called peer-to-peer, consists of a mesh of interconnected devices. Each router is typically connected through at least two pathways, and can relay messages for its neighbors. This topology supports multi-hop communications, which hops from device to device looking for the most effective communication path, and providing fault tolerance by automatically rerouting around failed devices.
mesh topology
Metering Device
Gas Meter, Water Meter, Electric Meter, or Heat (Thermal) Meter.
MIC
The Message Integrity Check (MIC) field is part of ZigBee security. The length of the MIC field is used to authenticate packets.
Multicast
This is a transmission to every device in a particular PAN belonging to a dynamically defined multicast group, and within a given transmission radius measured in hops.
Multihop
The process of passing data by hopping from device to device using the most reliable communication links and most cost-effective path until the destination is reached. Multi-hop helps to provide fault tolerance, in that if one device fails or experiences interference, the network can reroute itself using the remaining devices. Multi-hop is typical in Mesh Topology networks.
Multihop Network
This is a network, in particular a wireless network, in which there is no guarantee that the transmitter and the receiver of a given message are connected or linked to each other. This implies that intermediate devices must be used as routers.

N

Neighbor Table
This is a table used by a ZigBee device to keep track of other devices within the POS.
Network
An interconnected system of computers and “smart” things. Connections between these objects can be physical/cabled or wireless. Network devices can communicate with each other and share information.
Network Address
The address assigned to a device by the Network Layer and used by the Network layer for routing messages between devices.
Network Discovery
This is a feature provided by some tools that allows you to discover all the devices and the structure of a network that already exists (as compared with watching a new network form).
Network Keys
The Standard and High Security Network Keys are used to perform Network Layer security on a ZigBee network. All devices on a ZigBee network share this key. The only difference between the Standard and High Security Network Keys are the rules that are enforced on how they are distributed to devices. A High Security Network Key can never be sent unencrypted over the air; however a Standard Security Network Key can be. As far as the security algorithms used to do the encryption and decryption are concerned, they are identical. See also Link Keys and Master Keys.
Network Manager
This is a ZigBee device that implements network management functions including PAN ID conflict resolution and frequency agility measures in the face of interference.
Node
A collection of independent device descriptions and applications residing in a single unit and sharing a common 802.15.4 radio.
Non-beacon-enabled Network
A network that does not contain any devices that transmit Beacon frames at a regular interval.
Nonce
Part of MAC, NWK, and APS layer security. The Nonce is formed using the 64-bit Source Address, 32-bit Frame Counter, and 8-bit Security field.
NWK
The ZigBee Network Layer, which along with the 802.15.4 MAC and PHY layers is used to create and maintain the communication network interconnecting individual ZigBee devices. The NWK layer performs functions including network management and addressing, message routing, and route discovery and maintenance.
stack

O

Orphaned Device
A device that has lost communication with or information about the ZigBee device through which it has its PAN membership.
OTA
Over the Air.
Over-the-air Download (OAD)
A mechanism by which the firmware on wireless embedded devices can be download (or upgraded) wirelessly.

P

Packet
A block of data sent over a network that transmits the identifies of the sending and receiving devices, sequence number, error-control information, and message.
PAN Coordinator
The principal controller of a network that is responsible for the network formation and maintenance. The PAN coordinator must be a Router.
Peer-to-peer
Direct communication between two network devices without the need for messages to pass through a network controller.
Performance
Performance of ZigBee devices and networks is measured by things including the speed and efficiency of communications, and the number of packets lost or errored.
Permit Join
A Commissioning command provided through the ZDP (ZigBee Device Profile) that offers basic controls to temporarily or permanently enable or disable permission to join an individual router, a set of routers, or all routers in a network. It sets the “permit join” flag for the router, which indicates whether or not other devices can join it.
Personal/Home Health Care (PTG)
A ZigBee Alliance Application Profile and working group,
PHY
IEEE 802.15.4 has two Physical (PHY) layers that operate in two separate frequency ranges 868MHz, 915MHz and 2.4GHz. The lower frequency PHY layer covers both the 868MHz European band and the 915MHz band used in countries such as the US and Australia. The higher frequency PHY layer is used virtually worldwide.
stack
PICS
A Protocol Implementation Conformance Statement lists all parameters and features included in the ZigBee Alliance specification and relevant test documents. It rates which items are mandatory or optional for product certification.
Point-to-point
The most simple of network topologies consisting of a direct link between two nodes.
Polled Mode
Part of ZigBee Locationing. In Polled mode, any node within the ZigBee network can request the position of a Blind Node on demand. After receiving the request, the Blind Node acquires data from Reference Nodes, calculates its location, and then sends that location back to the original requester. See also Auto mode.
Private Application Profile
Also called manufacturer-specific or proprietary, these Application Profiles are developed by product developers creating private networks for their own applications where interoperability is not required. Compare with Public Application Profile.
Private Method
Attributes that are accessible only to ZigBee device objects and unavailable to the end applications.
Professional Edition
The fully-featured version of the Daintree Networks Sensor Network Analyzer (SNA), which provides a complete toolkit for ZigBee and 802.15.4 development, testing, commissioning, and maintenance. Features include multi-node capture, advanced network visualization, detailed performance measurements, active analysis of live networks, advanced troubleshooting, and a commissioning tool. Compare with Standard Edition.
Profile
A collection of clusters and device descriptions, which together form a cooperative application.
Proprietary
Something that is privately developed and owned that cannot be used by other parties without negotiations. Proprietary standards, technologies and (private) Application Profiles do not provide the same types of Interoperability and cost savings that are available through the Open versions being offered by the ZigBee Alliance.
Protocol
A set of formalized rules that determine how information is transmitted over a network. Communication within a ZigBee network is managed according to the ZigBee Stack Architecture.
Protocol Data Unit (PDU)
The unit of data that is exchanged between two peer entities.
Proxy Binding
The procedure through which a device can create or remove a Binding link on the ZigBee Coordinator between two devices (neither of which can be the device itself).
PTG
A ZigBee Alliance Application Profile and working group focused on telecom applications,
Public Application Profile
Also called open or standard, these Application Profiles are developed by members of the ZigBee Alliance to ensure devices from different manufacturers can interoperate. Compare with Private Application Profile.
Public Method
Attributes that are accessible to End Applications.

R

Radio
The IEEE 802.15.4 radio that is part of every ZigBee device.
Redundancy
One of the keys to making a Mesh Network self healing. By ensuring that each device is connected to several others (redundancy), if one drops out of the network, its neighbors simply find another route.
Reference Node
A stationary device with a well-known and stable location (X/Y position) that can be used for Locationing. Reference nodes should be placed to bound the extremities of an area where Blind nodes are located. Blind nodes will broadcast a request to all Reference nodes in radio range. Reference nodes respond with their location and the received signal strength of the Blind node request. The Blind node’s location can then be calculated using this information.
Rejoin
A ZigBee Commissioning startup control that tells the current device to connect to a network with a specific EPID (and other settings) that you specify. See also Join and Connect.
RFD (Reduced Function Device)
See  End Device.
RFID
Radio Frequency Identifier.
Route
The communication path taken within a ZigBee network to take a message from its source to its destination.
route
Route Discovery
An operation in which a ZigBee coordinator or router attempts to discover a route to a remove device by issuing a route request command frame.
Route Discovery Table
A table used by a ZigBee Coordinator or ZigBee Router to store temporary information used during route discovery.
Route Request
A ZigBee network layer command frame used to discover paths through the network over which subsequent messages can be delivered.
Router
A network device that extends network area coverage, dynamically routes around obstacles, and provides backup routes in case of network congestion or device failure. Routers can connect to the network coordinator, other routers, and end devices. Also referred to as an FFD (Full Function Device).
Routing Table
A table in which a ZigBee coordinator or ZigBee router stores information required to participate in the routing of frames.
RSSI
Receive Signal Strength Indication, where the lower the number is, the stronger the signal.

S

S-Mode (Simple)
A ZigBee commissioning mode, whereby external tools are used to facilitate more extensive commissioning. See also A-Mode and E-Mode.
SAS (Startup Attribute Set)
Part of the ZigBee Commissioning Cluster, the SAS determines how a device starts up and chooses a network to join. The SAS includes information such as Extended PAN ID (EPID), channel mask, and security information.
Security
An important part of ZigBee that provides the means to prevent unwanted monitoring of the system by encrypting all packet communication in highly secure 128-bit AES protocols.
Security Key
See Key.  
Security Level
A value from 0 to 5 that specifies the level of security for a ZigBee network, where 5 is the highest security level and 0 indicates no security.
Sensor
A device that responds to a physical stimulus (such as heat, light, or pressure), and generates a signal that can be measured or interpreted.
Sensor Network Analyzer (SNA)
An Analyzer from Daintree Networks, that provides a comprehensive solution for ZigBee and 802.15.5 testing, analysis and commissioning. The SNA is standards-based, supported by an extensive range of chipset evaluation boards, and used by the ZigBee Alliance for their Interoperability test events.
SNA
Sequence Number
A value inserted into the header of every frame, which is incremented by 1 with each new transmitted frame. The values of the source address and sequence number fields of a frame, taken as a pair, can be used to uniquely identify that frame.
Service Discovery
The ability of a device to locate services of interest.
Scan
Sending Beacon requests on each channel and monitoring the responses. You can scan to discover things including what the ambient energy level is on each channel, what devices are on each channel, and information about each device including its detected LQI and whether it is accepting associations. Scanning typically requires a hardware device capable of Active Analysis and supporting Analyzer software.
SimpliciTI
A proprietary protocol from Texas Instruments, SimpliciTI is a simple low-power RF network protocol aimed at small RF networks. Such networks typically contain battery-operated devices that require long battery life, low data rate and low duty cycle, and have a limited number of nodes talking directly to each other or through an access point or range extenders.
Smart Energy
The name by which the ZigBee Alliance Application Profile for AMI is known.
Sniffer
An application that passively monitors network traffic, and captures packets for offline analysis. Compare with Analyzer.
SoftProfiles
An XML-based tool that provides the ability to create and edit Application Profiles. Part of the Sensor Network Analyzer.
Source
The device at which a transmission is originated. All transmissions have a source (sending device) and destination (receiving device).
Specification
See Zigbee Specification.
Stack Profile
The ZigBee stack profile defines network, application services, and security parameters for the entire network. The stack profile is selected by the ZigBee coordinator, and is chosen on the basis of application areas such as Home Controls, Building Automation, or Plant Control. Each Stack Profile defines parameters such as the overall dimensions of the network, supported routing algorithms, routing and application binding table sizes, and the nature of security services.
Standard Edition
The mid-range version of the Daintree Networks Sensor Network Analyzer (SNA), which provides an essential set of tools for ZigBee and 802.15.4 development and testing. Key features include comprehensive protocol analysis with detailed packet lists and packet decodes, filters and extensive capture playback controls, and network visualization. Compare with Professional Edition.
Standards-based
Devices and applications based on the ZigBee and 802.15.4 standards.
Star Topology
In a Star network topology, also called point-to-point, all devices are within direct communication range to the coordinator, through which all messages are routed.
star topology
Startup Command
Part of ZigBee Commissioning, the Startup command is used to determine how a device should join a network. As a Coordinator, or as a device that either Joins, Rejoins, or Connects to a network. A coordinator typically starts a new network, but can also an existing network. Use Join to join any network. Use Rejoin or Connect to join a network with a specific EIPD.
Stream
The packet flow from Source to Destination without any information about which intermediate hops were traversed by the packets.
Symmetric-key Key Establishment
A mechanism by which two parties establish a shared secret, based on a pre-shared secret (a so-called Master Key).
Synkro
A proprietary protocol from Freescale Semiconductor, Synkro is a lightweight networking stack built on top of the IEEE 802.15.4 standard. The protocol was created to control, monitor and automate consumer electronic products including televisions, DVD players and recorders, set top boxes, audio video receivers, remote control and many more. Synkro overcomes the growing technology challenges that today’s consumer electronic products face with 30-year-old infrared (IR) technology by removing the line of sight and field of vision issues while providing a fast bi-directional link to enhance user experiences. 

T

Telecom Applications (PTG)
A ZigBee Alliance Application Profile and working group,
Timeline
A filtering option provided by some Analyzers. For example, a Packet Timeline could show packet events over time on a per device basis.
Timestamp
A time code used to identify a packet. Timestamps are used for captured packets, to allow them to be replayed at the same rate as they were originally captured. They are also useful for multi-device and multi-channel captures, to allow synchronization of captured packets.
Topology
Refers to the configuration of the hardware components and how data is transmitted through that configuration. See also star and mesh.
Trust Center
The device trusted by all devices within a ZigBee network to distribute Keys for the purpose of network and end-to-end application configuration management.

U

Unicast
The transmission of a message to a single device in a network.
USB
Universal Serial Bus. USB is a “plug and play” interface between a computer and hardware device.
USN
Ubiquitous Sensor Network.

V

Visual Device Layout (VDL)
Part of the Daintree Sensor Network Analyzer. The VDL window provides a graphical representation of the devices and communications on the network. It allows the use of custom icons and labels for each device, and the inclusion of a background image, such as a floor plan, on which to position devices.
VDL
Visual Device Tree (VDT)
Part of the Daintree Sensor Network Analyzer. The VDT window provides a graphical rendition of network topology and information flows between devices in an 802.15.4 or ZigBee network. It automatically detects network formation, reports changes to the network structure, and notifies of the state of individual devices in the network especially with regard to formation.
VDT
View
Part of the Daintree Sensor Network Analyzer. User-defined views can be used to filter information, and select what details are and are not shown in the VDL and VDT windows.

W

Wireless
Using the radio-frequency spectrum for transmitting and receiving data.
Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)
Also referred to as a Wireless Sensor and Control Network (WSCN), These networks contain numerous small independent Sensor nodes. The nodes are self-contained units that consist of a battery, radio, sensors, and a minimal amount of on-board computing power.

X

XML
XML (Extensible Markup Language) is a flexible way to create and share common information formats.

Z

ZigBee
A specification for a suite of high-level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless personal area networks (WPANs). ZigBee is targeted at RF applications that require a low data rate, long battery life, and secure networking.
ZigBee Alliance
An association of companies working together to enable reliable, cost-effective, low-power, wirelessly networked monitoring and control products based on an open global standard. Visit the ZigBee Alliance website at www.zigbee.org.
ZigBee Alliance
ZigBee Certified Product
This level of ZigBee Compliance applies to end products that use a ZigBee a public Application Profile and are built on a ZigBee Compliant Platform. After successful completion, the product may bear the ZigBee Alliance logo to signify that it has passed certification. See also ZigBee Network Capable.
ZigBee Cluster Library (ZCL)
A library that contains ZigBee clusters, which are messages or collections of similar messages). These clusters can be used to create custom Application Profiles.
ZigBee Commissioning Cluster (ZCC)
Specified by the ZigBee Alliance, this cluster delivers a standard set of over-the-air ZigBee commands for Membership commissioning. See also SAS.
ZigBee Compliant Platform (ZCP)
This level of ZigBee Compliance applies to modules or platforms that are intended as building blocks for end products. See also ZigBee Network Capable and ZigBee Certified Product.
ZigBee Device Object (ZDO)
The portion of the ZigBee Application layer responsible for defining the role of the device within the network (e.g. coordinator, router, or end device), initiating and/or responding to binding and discovery requests, and establishing a secure relationship between network devices. It also provides a rich set of management commands, defined in the ZigBee Device Profile (ZDP).
ZigBee Device Profile (ZDP)
Used in ZigBee commissioning, this profile provides a suite of standard commands to use during commissioning. It includes commands for binding and group commissioning, discovery commands to examine the network, and membership commands such as “permit join” and “leave”.
ZigBee Network Capable (ZNC)
This level of ZigBee Compliance applies to end products are built on a ZigBee Compliant Platform and use non-public (proprietary) ZigBee Application Profiles. Testing is intended to ensure that such products coexist successfully with products and networks certified by the ZigBee Appliance, in that they do not adversely impact the operation of other ZigBee-certified products and networks. See also ZigBee Certified Product.
ZigBee PRO
Functionality to be included in the ZigBee 2007 Specification that includes features including an industrial strength stack, and support for commercial building automation, HVAC, and Industrial Plant Monitoring Application Profiles.
ZigBee Specification
A specification developed by the member companies of the ZigBee Alliance that provides the framework for developing Interoperable ZigBee devices and applications. It contains specifications for things like the ZigBee Stack Architecture, Application Profiles, and Commissioning tools.
ZigBee Stack Architecture
Using a layered communications architecture, ZigBee makes use of the IEEE 802.15.4 Media Access Control (MAC) and Physical (PHY) layers and itself defines a Network (NWK) layer, along with an Application Layer and security components.
stack
ZigBee Standard
See ZigBee Specification (above).
ZigFest
A ZigFest is a ZigBee Alliance interoperability event where manufacturers gather together to showcase their products and network with other wireless technology professionals. Several test cases and runs are facilitated to test device interoperability.

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2400E
The 2400E Sensor Network Adapter (available from Daintree Networks) is a hardware device that can join live networks to passively monitor and capture, actively poll, and commission devices.
2400E
6LoWPAN
An acronym of IPv6 over Low power Wireless Personal Area Networks. 6LoWPAN is a standard from the IETF (RFC 4944 published in 2007), which optimizes IPv6 for use with low-power, low-bandwidth communication technologies such as the IEEE 802.15.4 radio. The IETF 6LoWPAN working group was specifically chartered to tackle the problem of defining how to carry IP-based communication over 802.15.4 links in a manner that conforms to open standards and provides interoperability with other IP links and devices, as well as among 802.15.4 (LoWPAN) devices.
802.15.4
An IEEE task group and resulting standard that provides a low data rate solution with multi-month to multi-year battery life and very low complexity. It operates in an unlicensed, international frequency band. 802.15.4 provides the PHY and MAC layers on which ZigBee operates (with ZigBee providing the network and application layers).
stack

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